Nikos A. Salingaros: ARTICLES ON ARCHITECTURE, COMPLEXITY, PATTERNS, AND URBANISM

See also BOOKS : LECTURES & VIDEOS : ITALIAN listed on their own webpages

The most exciting scientific developments of the past decade, such as fractals, complexity theory, evolutionary biology, and artificial intelligence give us an idea of how human beings interact with their environment. Organisms, computer programs, buildings, neighborhoods, and cities share the same general rules governing a complex hierarchical system. All matter -- biological as well as inanimate -- organizes itself into coherent structures. The human mind has evolved in order to adapt to complex patterns in the natural world, so the patterns we perceive around us influence our internal function as human beings.

A new, human-oriented architecture follows ideas by Christopher Alexander, combining the best qualities of traditional architecture with the latest technological and scientific advances. The greatest architecture is complex and coherent; but neither random, nor simplistic. By understanding how to generate "life" in built structures, we can drastically improve the way buildings and cities relate to people. Unfortunately, the universe's wonderfully rich complexity is ignored and suppressed by a contemporary design canon that seeks plainness and a false purity, while at the same time promoting disorder rather than coherent structures.

NEWER ITEMS

2014 -- Antiarquitectura y deconstrucción, primera edición de este libro en castellano. Publicado simultaneamente por Mairea Libros, Madrid y Diseño Editorial, Buenos Aires. Grupos en otros países hispanohablantes lo pueden imprimir bajo licencia.

2014 -- Three parts from Chapter 11 of "A Theory of Architecture" will be published online in three languages.

2014 -- Complexity in Architecture and Design, to appear in Oz Volume 36, 2014 (ask me for a preprint).

2014 -- Cognitive Dissonance and Non-adaptive Architecture, Doxa Issue 11, Norgunk Publishing House, Istanbul, January 2014, pages 100-117, in TURKISH and ENGLISH. Republication of a 2011 article.

2014 -- A Future Without Starchitects, Chapter 4.3 in Jonathan Manns, Ed. Kaleidoscope City: Reflections on Planning and London, RTPI Press, London, 2014, pages 123-131.

2014 -- The biological basis of resilient cities (with Michael Mehaffy), Ecologist, 25 January 2014. Revised version of Toward Resilient Architectures 1: Biology Lessons, originally published in 2013.

2013-2014 -- My NEW BOOK UNIFIED ARCHITECTURAL THEORY (International Edition and US Edition, see description) is being published free online in English, Portuguese, and Spanish: access all of the chapters HERE.

2013 -- Five-part series of articles in Metropolis (with Michael Mehaffy):

  1. Toward Resilient Architectures 1: Biology Lessons, 22 March 2013; reprinted in Resilience, 25 March 2013, and Permaculture & Regenerative Design News, 26 March 2013.
  2. Toward Resilient Architectures 2: Why Green Often Isn't, 4 April 2013, and in Resilience, 5 April 2013; reprinted under the new title Why Green Architecture Hardly Ever Deserves the Name in ArchDaily, 3 July 2013, Socializarq, 3 July 2013, and Moorish Harem, 24 July 2013; with the title Why modernist design may be inherently hard to green in The Fifth Estate, 10 July 2013. PORTUGUESE version: Porque a "Arquitetura Verde" quase nunca merece este nome, ArchDaily Brasil, 11 de Agosto 2013, Secovi-SP, 21 de Agosto 2013. SPANISH version: Por qué la Arquitectura Verde pocas veces merece su nombre en Plataforma Arquitectura, 8 de Julio 2013, 2arquitectos, 9 de Julio 2013, Arquitectura Sustentable, 6 de Agosto 2013; y con el título Por qué la arquitectura verde a menudo no lo es en Ciencia, Arte y Diseño, 10 de Julio 2013.
  3. Toward Resilient Architectures 3: How Modernism Got Square, 19 April 2013; reprinted in Reclaiming Beauty, 23 April, and Resilience, 24 April 2013. Comment by David Brussat in the Providence Journal; reprinted in ArchDaily.
  4. Toward Resilient Architectures 4: The Geometry of Resilience, Metropolis, 21 August 2013. -- "Packed with detail and beautiful in presentation" -- Gil Friend.
  5. Toward Resilient Architectures 5: Agile Design, Metropolis, 20 December 2013.

2013 -- A Vision for Architecture as More Than the Sum of Its Parts (with Michael Mehaffy), On the Commons, 11 November 2013 (PDF version), reprinted in Resilience, 13 November, in International Society of Biourbanism, 14 November, in Permaculture Research Institute, 22 November, Appendix in P2P Foundation, 14 November.

2013 -- Revisiting and rethinking contemporary urban design, interview in Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, Vol. 37, No. 3 (2013) pages 161-164 (only Abstract is online -- ask me for a reprint); LITHUANIAN version in Kulturos Barai, No. 5, 2013, pages 6-9.

2013 -- Fractal Art and Architecture Reduce Physiological Stress, JBU -- Journal of Biourbanism, Volume II, No. 2 (2012) 11-28 (published September 2013). Included as Chapter 26 of the new book "Unified Architectural Theory", Sustasis Press, 2013.

2013 -- The Meaning of Complexity (with Michael Mehaffy), Sharp End of the Green Stick, 19 May 2013; and with changed title Designers Don't Get Science (And That's A Dangerous Thing), ArchDaily, 21 June 2013, and Socializarq, 21 June 2013. Republication of a 2012 article. PORTUGUESE version: Projetistas não entendem de ciência (e isso é perigoso), ArchDaily Brasil, 21 de Julio, 2013 y em Funco, 27 de Julio, 2013.

2013 -- Social Housing as a Process of Self-Organization, Chapter 1.5 in: City Connect: Regeneration, Sustainability and Equity in the 21st Century, Geeta Mehta & George Kunihiro, Editors, mAAN Publishing, Tokyo, 2013, pages ?.

 

PAPERS, ESSAYS, AND INTERVIEWS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF INITIAL PUBLICATION 1995-present.
Listed twice on this page: first only by title, then further down with a full description.

 

1995 -- The Laws of Architecture from a Physicist's Perspective : PERSIAN : PORTUGUESE : SPANISH : more...

1997 -- Life and Complexity in Architecture From a Thermodynamic Analogy : PERSIAN : more...

1998 -- Theory of the Urban Web : FINNISH : GREEK : PORTUGUESE : SPANISH : more...

1998 -- A Scientific Basis for Creating Architectural Forms : PERSIAN : more...

1998 -- book review -- Christopher Alexander's "A Pattern Language".

1999 -- Urban Space and its Information Field : PORTUGUESE : more...

1999 -- Architecture, Patterns, and Mathematics : PERSIAN : more...

1999 -- A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes (co-authored with Bruce J. West) : more...

2000 -- Ecology and the Fractal Mind in the New Architecture: A Conversation with Victor Padrón : PERSIAN : more...

2000 -- Pavements as Embodiments of Meaning for a Fractal Mind (co-authored with Terry M. Mikiten and Hing-Sing Yu) : PERSIAN : more...

2000 -- The Structure of Pattern Languages : GREEK : PERSIAN : SPANISH : more...

2000 -- Hierarchical Cooperation in Architecture, and the Mathematical Necessity for Ornament : FRENCH : PERSIAN : more...

2000 -- Complexity and Urban Coherence : ITALIAN : more...

2000 -- A Pattern Measure (co-authored with Allen Klinger) : PERSIAN : more...

2001 -- Fractals in the New Architecture : ITALIAN : PERSIAN : more...

2001 -- Modularity and the Number of Design Choices (co-authored with Débora M. Tejada) : PERSIAN : more...

2001 -- Remarks on a City's Composition : FINNISH : more...

2001 -- interview -- Entretien en français avec Archicool.

2001 -- book review -- Anthony Vidler's "Warped Space. Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture" : FRENCH : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2001 -- The End of Tall Buildings (co-authored with James Howard Kunstler) : FRENCH : PERSIAN : more...

2001 -- The Future Of Cities: The Absurdity of Modernism -- Nikos Salingaros interviews Léon Krier : ITALIAN : PERSIAN : SPANISH : SWEDISH : more...

2002 -- The End of the Modern World (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy) : more...

2002 -- Geometrical Fundamentalism (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy) : ITALIAN : PERSIAN : more...

2002 -- Darwinian Processes and Memes in Architecture: A Memetic Theory of Modernism (co-authored with Terry M. Mikiten) : PERSIAN : POLISH : more...

2002 -- A Missed Learning Opportunity.

2002 -- panel discussion -- Preserving Modern Architecture : more...

2002 -- Twentieth-Century Architecture as a Cult : FRENCH : GERMAN : HUNGARIAN : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2002 -- Anti-architecture and Religion : FRENCH : ITALIAN : PORTUGUESE : SPANISH : more...

2002 -- book review -- Steven Pinker's "The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature".

2003 -- Deconstructing The Decons: The World Trade Center Project Spotlights The Empire's Newest Clothes (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy) : FRENCH : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2003 -- Two Languages for Architecture : PERSIAN : more...

2003 -- Death, Life, and Libeskind (co-authored with Brian Hanson) : FRENCH : ITALIAN : PERSIAN : SPANISH : more...

2003 -- Adaptive evolution, not modernism, produces architecture 'of our time' (co-authored with Michael Mehaffy)

2003 -- The Danger of Deconstructivism : FRENCH : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2003 -- interview -- German summary of interview with ORF Vienna -- Austrian National Broadcasting Corporation, "Connecting the Fractal City".

2003 -- "A Week With Nikos Salingaros", Michael Blowhard interviews Nikos Salingaros : PERSIAN : more...

2003 -- Pattern Language and Interactive Design : FRENCH : PORTUGUESE : SPANISH : more...

2003 -- The Sensory Value of Ornament : PERSIAN : more...

2003 -- The Derrida Virus : FRENCH : ITALIAN : PORTUGUESE : SPANISH : more...

2003 -- book review -- Christopher Alexander's "The Process of Creating Life: The Nature of Order, Book 2".

2003 -- translation -- "Annotations on an Implicit Text", the work of Nicolas Gomez-Davila.

2003 -- Salingaros on Kahn.

2004 -- The Information Architecture of Cities (co-authored with L. Andrew Coward) : CATALAN : SPANISH : more...

2004 -- The New Acropolis Museum : FRENCH : GREEK : HUNGARIAN : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2004 -- Connecting the Fractal City : CHINESE : SPANISH : more...

2005 -- Nikos Salingaros interviews Christopher Alexander : FRENCH : SPANISH : more...

2004 -- Architectural Theory and the Work of Bernard Tschumi : FRENCH : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2004 -- Charles Jencks and the New Paradigm in Architecture : FRENCH : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2004 -- interview -- "Les gratte-ciel ont un effet destructeur sur la cité", Olivier Hertel interviews Nikos Salingaros : more...

2004 -- Aggression and Architectural Education: The 'Coup' in Viseu : more...

2004 -- Design Methods, Emergence, and Collective Intelligence : PERSIAN : more...

2004 -- book review -- Léon Krier's "Architecture: Choice or Fate".

2005 -- Towards a New Urban Philosophy & The Case of Athens (originally published together) : ITALIAN : more...

2006 -- Contemporary Church Architecture and Saint Augustine's 'The City of God' : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2006 -- Architectural Memes in a Universe of Information : FRENCH : PERSIAN : more...

2006 -- The Chessboard Model of Architectural Styles : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2006 -- The New Ara Pacis Museum : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2006 -- Compact City Replaces Sprawl : SPANISH : more...

2006 -- Architecture: Biological Form and Artificial Intelligence (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden II) : more...

2006 -- book review -- Christopher Alexander's "The Luminous Ground: The Nature of Order, Book 4" (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden II) : more...

2007 -- Restructuring 21st Century Architecture Through Human Intelligence (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden II) : more...

2007 -- Architectural Cannibalism in Athens : GREEK : HUNGARIAN : SPANISH : more...

2007 -- Urbanism for Life: Let Children Help Design our Cities : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- article -- CHINESE VERSION of Connecting the Fractal City, Urban Planning International, 23 (6), 2008; free download HERE.

2008 -- Children, network urbanism and biophilia (one-page Viewpoint for the inaugural issue of the Journal of Urbanism, volume 1, number 1).

2008 -- The cult of nihilism in contemporary architecture : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- Religion and Nature: the architectural sources of beauty : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- Growing Sustainable Suburbs: An Incremental Strategy for Reconstructing Sprawl (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy and Lucien Steil) : more...

2008 -- Neuroscience, the Natural Environment, and Building Design (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden II) : first ITALIAN extract : second ITALIAN extract : more...

2008 -- Skyscrapers? Totalitarian utopias : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- Intelligence-Based Design: A Sustainable Foundation For Worldwide Architectural Education (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden II) : more...
  -- section entitled Against Ecophobia: Towards a Human Habitat : GREEK : ITALIAN
  -- another section entitled Politics, Philosophy, Critical Theory, and Human Perception : ITALIAN.

2008 -- interview -- "Respect for the Human Scale", Lakis Polycarpou interviews James Howard Kunstler and Nikos Salingaros, part 1 & part 2 : LITHUANIAN : more...

2008 -- Design review: Arata Isozaki's Proposed Metal Frame, Piazza dei Castellani (Uffizi Galleries) in Florence, Italy : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- Say no to starchitects: they are nihilists! : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- The uninsurable skyscraper : ITALIAN : more...

2008 -- "Peer-to-peer Urbanism", Michel Bauwens interviews Nikos Salingaros : GREEK : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- Let's remove the starchitects' mask (co-authored with Paolo Masciocchi and Pietro Pagliardini) : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- Connecting the Fractal Coast : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- interview -- Isabella Guarini interviews Nikos Salingaros : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- Making wholeness heals the maker : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- The geometry and life of urban space (co-authored with Pietro Pagliardini) : ITALIAN : SPANISH : more...

2009 -- new book only in Italian: No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, 2009: 346 pages.

2009 -- Every healthy urban revolution needs to be horizontal (co-authored with Paolo Masciocchi and Pietro Pagliardini) : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- interview -- Intervista con Terzo Occhio, Pierpaolo Conti intervista Nikos Salingaros : ITALIAN : more...

2009 -- book review -- Malcolm Millais' "Exploding the Myths of Modern Architecture", INTBAU, September 2009.

2009 -- article & interview -- La costa frattale genera la vita urbana, e Isabella Guarini intervista Nikos Salìngaros. Il Covile No. 543, 21 settembre 2009.

2009 -- GREEK VERSION of Against Ecophobia: Towards a Human Habitat, Greekarchitects (22 September 2009).

2009 -- CHINESE VERSION of Towards a biological understanding of human nature, Landscapea, 13 November 2009.

2009 -- interview -- Interview with Abadi, Vahid Vahdazad interviews Nikos Salingaros : PERSIAN : more...

2009 -- interview -- Degrado: ripartire dalla piazza, Leonardo Servadio intervista Paolo Masciocchi, with a mention of the Doha project : more...

2009 -- GREEK VERSION of Architectural Cannibalism in Athens, Greekarchitects (23 July 2009). Reprinted HERE.
Comments by Maria Seferou.

2009 -- GREEK VERSION of The Structure of Pattern Languages, Greekarchitects, 20 November 2009.

2009 -- Oakland versus Houston: two cathedrals, two styles (italian version), Chiesa Oggi, No. 87 (2009). Comparative review of the two new Cathedrals. Bilingual english/italian version HERE.
Comments on this article, in Italian. Reprinted HERE with further comments.

2009 -- Biofilìa: Nuova frontiera e antica tecnica a servizio dell'architettura (with Paolo Masciocchi, Pietro Pagliardini, and Pietro Pini, in Italian), Bioarchitettura, No. 57-58, agosto 2009, pagine 28-31. Also HERE.

2009 -- GREEK VERSION of Theory of the Urban Web, Greekarchitects (13 September 2009).

2010 -- GREEK VERSION of The Information Architecture of Cities (co-authored with L. Andrew Coward), Greekarchitects, 22 January 2010.

2010 -- Geometria y vida del espacio urbano (with Pietro Pagliardini), Cuadernos de Arquitectura y Nuevo Urbanismo, Tecnológico de Monterrey Campus Querétaro, Número 6/7, año 4, Marzo 2010, páginas 7-20.

2010 -- Geospatial Analysis and Living Urban Geometry (co-authored with Pietro Pagliardini and Sergio Porta), Chapter 17 in the book Geospatial Analysis and Modeling of Urban Structure and Dynamics, Springer, New York, 2010, pages 331-353: more...
  -- extract entitled Starchitects Against Urban Geometry : ITALIAN

2010 -- Urban Nuclei and the Geometry of Streets: the "Emergent Neighborhoods" Model (co-authored with Michael Mehaffy, Sergio Porta, and Yodan Rofè), Urban Design International, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pages 22-46. A controversy about the proper location of the non-residential core of a neighborhood in relation to thoroughfares is resolved. We propose a "400 meter rule", a surprisingly small maximum spacing of main thoroughfares that empirical observation shows traditional, pedestrian-governed urban fabric obeys, for reasons to do with the self-organizing logic of pedestrian movement and social activity.
Fanis Grammenos comments on this article, calling it "a major contribution", see: "Supermodel Sirens on 'Sanctuary' Island", Planetizen, 9 August 2010.

2010 -- Peer-to-Peer Themes and Urban Priorities for the Self-organizing Society, P2PFoundation, 26 April 2010, republished on the P2PFoundation Blog, 29 April 2010.

2010 -- The Concept of Sustainability in Urban Design, interview with Amin Rastandeh, Insight, May 2010.

2010 -- Twelve lectures on architecture: algorithmic sustainable design, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2010 is being translated into Persian. Chapter 1 is available for free (December 2010).

2010 -- Article in Greek -- No cheap copies in a city with history, Kathimerini, 29 May 2010, also HERE and HERE.

2010 -- Tear Down the Corviale! New Urbanism Comes to Rome, Planetizen, 24 May 2010. I present the case for demolishing a modernist eyesore in Rome and replacing it with a high-density, mixed-use New Urbanist neighborhood. Reprinted in An Architectural Humanism, 28 March 2011.

2010 -- Interview in Italian -- Italy will pay for the errors of xenophilic politicians who recruit only starchitects, House Living and Business, 7 August 2010.

2010 -- Teaching Design at the Limits of Architecture (co-authored with Kenneth G. Masden) IJAR -- International Journal of Architectural Research, Volume 4, Issue 2&3 (2010) pages 19-31.

2010 -- The World I See, Chapter in Kurt Butz, The World I Dream Of, O-Books, Winchester, UK, 2010, pages 158-161.

2010 -- P2P Urbanism: a definition (co-authored by the Peer-to-Peer Urbanism Task Force), published in AboutUs Wiki, in the P2P Foundation, in DorfWiki, and in Peer to Peer Urbanism September 2010; with an earlier version published HERE. Available in ITALIAN (also HERE and HERE) published in Planning Cafè, 4 January 2011. SPANISH version published in Archile.com, 1 del enero de 2011.

2010 -- Urban and Enterprise Architectures: A Cross-Disciplinary Look at Complexity (co-authored with Roger Sessions), ObjectWatch, October 2010.

2010 -- Life and the Geometry of the Environment, Athens Dialogues E-Journal, Harvard University’s Center for Hellenic Studies, October 2010; reprinted by The Permaculture Research Institute, October 2010.

2010 -- La creazione dell’integrità risana il creatore, Nemeton Magazine, No. 4 (in italian); reprinted in Arianna Editrice, 11 November 2010. This is a republication of the first half of an article originally published in Il Covile, Anno IX, No. 507 (15 April 2009).

2010 -- Habitação socialmente organizada, uma nova abordagem à estrutura urbana I: design capaz de estabelecer posse emocional (Nikos A. Salingaros, David Brain, Andrés M. Duany, Michael W. Mehaffy, Ernesto Philibert-Petit), URBE: Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, Vol. 2 No. 2 (July/December 2010), pages 191-211.

2010 -- Our daily deceit (in greek), To Vima, 21 November 2010, reprinted by Greekarchitects, 15 December 2010.

2010 -- Manifesto for an architecture on the human scale, available in CZECH, ENGLISH, ITALIAN, PORTUGUESE, SPANISH.

2011 -- La Vecchia Truffa dei Nuovi Progetti Architettonici, Il Covile, No. 630, 18 February 2011, page 25.

2011 -- La geometria contro gli ecomostri, Corriere della Sera, ripubblicato in Gruppo Salingaros, in Biourbanistica, 1 aprile 2011; e in Arianna Editrice, 2 aprile 2011.

2011 -- Urban Nature: A Definition, Nemeton, No. 5, April 2011.

2011 -- Habitação socialmente organizada, uma nova abordagem à estrutura urbana II: sugestões práticas para que os projetos funcionem (Nikos A. Salingaros, David Brain, Andrés M. Duany, Michael W. Mehaffy, Ernesto Philibert-Petit), URBE -- Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana (Brazilian Journal of Urban Management), volume 3, no. 1, pages 125-136, January/June 2011.

2011 -- GERMAN VERSION of 20C Architecture as a Cult (a 2002 article).

2011 -- SPANISH VERSION: Una Historia Breve del Urbanismo P2P (con Federico Mena-Quintero), versión en castellano.

2011 -- Cognitive Dissonance and Non-adaptive Architecture, P2P Foundation, 2 February 2011; reprinted by the Permaculture Research Institute, 9 February 2011; reprinted by INTBAU Essays, 17 March 2011. Study on how human evolutionary psychology predisposes us to accept non-adaptive architectural styles. Section "Non-adaptive Architectural Implementations: Urban Plazas that Fail" republished (in english) in Rassegna di Biourbanistica, No. 1, March 2011, pages 5-6; read it online HERE.
COMMENT by James Kalb, Turnabout, 24 February 2011.

2011 -- TURKISH VERSION of Chapter 6 "Connecting the Fractal City" of my book Principles of Urban Structure, DOXA, Issue 10, Norgunk Publishing House, Istanbul, June 2011, pages 78-101.

2011 -- James Kalb interviews Nikos Salingaros, The Philadelphia Society, 20 August 2011, reprinted in Permaculture Research Institute, 14 November 2011, and in Energy Bulletin, 21 November 2011. Comments: Jerry Salyer in Front Porch Republic (6 September 2011), Rod Dreher in The American Conservative (12 September 2011).

2011 -- A Pattern Measure (written with Allen Klinger), a 2000 article republished by the Cornell University Library Arxiv, 28 August 2011.

2011 -- Daniel Libeskind's Architecture of Death (written with Brian Hanson), a 2003 article republished in Architects' Forum of the Technical University of Athens, 29 August 2011.

2011 -- VIETNAMESE VERSION of Chapter 1 "Recursion and the Fibonacci sequence. Universal scaling", and Chapter 6 "Alexander's Fifteen Fundamental Properties" of my book Twelve Lectures on Architecture, August 2011.

2011 -- Why Monotonous Repetition is Unsatisfying, Meandering Through Mathematics, 2 September 2011, reprinted in the Cornell University Library Arxiv, and in Design Stories Social Network, 19 September 2011.

2011 -- GREEK VERSION of The end of Tall Buildings (a 2001 article written with James Howard Kunstler), Greekarchitects, 18 October 2011.

2011 -- (a) Life and the Geometry of the Environment, Raise the Hammer, 22 August 2011, and reprinted by Design Stories Social Network, 15 October 2011. (b) Experienced Space and the Innovative City, Raise the Hammer, 2 September 2011. (c) Energy Consumption and Sustainability, Raise the Hammer, 6 September 2011. Reprinting, in three parts, of an article that first appeared in the Athens Dialogues E-Journal, Harvard University’s Center for Hellenic Studies, October 2010, and reprinted by The Permaculture Research Institute, October 2010.

2011 -- Habitação socialmente organizada, uma nova abordagem à estrutura urbana III: alguns problemas que enfrentamos (Nikos A. Salingaros, David Brain, Andrés M. Duany, Michael W. Mehaffy, Ernesto Philibert-Petit), URBE: Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, Vol. 3 No. 2 (July/December 2011), pages 293-308.

2011 -- Architectural Myopia: Designing for Industry, Not People (written with Michael Mehaffy), Shareable, 5 October 2011 (PDF version); reprinted by Energy Bulletin, 9 October 2011; reprinted by On the Commons, 15 October 2011; second half of article reprinted by the P2P Foundation, 17 October 2011, entire article reprinted in Guernica, 19 October 2011, in Permaculture Research Institute, 20 October 2011, in Tocci, 4 November 2011, and in Reality Sandwich, 15 November 2011.
Comentario en castellano, "Los Ojos del Arquitecto", Otro, 21 Octubre de 2011; comment by Josh Rothman, Boston Globe, 23 October 2011; comment by Justin Paulette, Ashbrook Center, 24 October 2011; comment by Joe Carter, First Things, 25 October 2011. "Design Myopia", by Rian van der Merwe, Smashing Magazine, 14 February 2012; shortened version in POLISH.

2011 -- Against the Architects of Empire (with James Kalb), Public Discourse, 22 November 2011, shorter version of an interview for the Philadelphia Society edited into an essay.

2011 -- Critical Theory, and Against Ecophobia, two sections of a 2008 article written with Kenneth Masden, republished by the Philadelphia Society, 11 December 2011.

2011 -- Imperialismo globale e antiarchitettura, intervista di Serena Baldini, Biourbanistica, 23 dicembre 2011, ripubblicata in Arianna Editrice, 27 dicembre 2011, TEMIS, 27 dicembre 2011, Megachip, 28 dicembre 2011, Informare per Resistere, 28 dicembre 2011, Informazione Consapevole, 28 dicembre 2011, Il Covile No. 675, 4 gennaio 2012.

2011 -- Comments on Ashraf Salama's paper: "The New Vitruvius?", International Society of Biourbanism, 29 December 2011, republication of an article from Archnet-IJAR, Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2007, pages 132-134.

2011 -- THE METROPOLIS ESSAYS ON CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER (written with Michael Mehaffy), MetropolisMag.com:
1. The Radical Technology of Christopher Alexander (6 September 2011).
2. The Sustainable Technology of Christopher Alexander (19 September 2011), reprinted in Urban Vista, 30 October 2011.
3. The Pattern Technology of Christopher Alexander (7 October 2011), reprinted in Urban Vista, 18 October 2011.
4. The Living Technology of Christopher Alexander (17 October 2011), reprinted in Urban Vista, 2 November 2011.
5. The "Wholeness-Generating" Technology of Christopher Alexander (24 October 2011), reprinted in Urban Vista, 17 November 2011.
PORTUGUESE VERSION of (2): A Tecnologia Sustentável de Christopher Alexander, 19 September 2011.

2011-2012 -- THE METROPOLIS ESSAYS, FIRST SERIES (written with Michael Mehaffy), MetropolisMag.com:
6. Frontiers of Design Science: Self-Organization (1 November 2011).
7. Frontiers of Design Science: Evidence-Based Design (14 November 2011).
8. Frontiers of Design Science: Biophilia (29 November 2011).
9. Frontiers of Design Science: The Network City (19 December 2011), reprinted in Urban Vista, 19 December 2011.
10. Frontiers of Design Science: Computational Irreducibility (12 January 2012), reprinted in Pichaus, 12 January 2012.
"If you wanted to know where the cutting edge was in urban design, it is here", Patrick J. Kennedy, CarFreeInBigD, 2 November 2011.
Comments on the series by Oeyvind Holmstad, P2P Foundation, 8 November 2011, reprinted in Permaculture Research Institute, 9 November 2011, and in Energy Bulletin, 10 November 2011; and in NORWEGIAN, 17 December 2011. (9) featured by Chris Clair in Evergreen Parker, 11 January 2012.
VIETNAMESE VERSION of (6), Vietnamese Urban Planning Magazine, page 42, 22 December 2011.

2012 -- Architetti distruggono la geometria urbana (con Pietro Pagliardini e Sergio Porta), e L'urbanistica applicata male: il caso Atene, due capitoli in: Davide Borsa, Editore, Memoria e identità del luogo, Maggioli Editore, Milano, 2012, pagine 383-387 e 517-522.

2012 -- A Brief History of P2P-Urbanism (co-authored with Federico Mena-Quintero), and HERE. GERMAN version in: S. Helfrich/Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, Commons: Für eine neue Politik jenseits von Markt und Staat, Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, 2012; pages 508-514 -- ENGLISH version in: The Wealth of the Commons: A World Beyond Market & State, edited by David Bollier and Silke Helfrich, Levellers Press, Amherst, 2012; pages 428-433. Earlier version published by the P2P Foundation, in Peer to Peer Urbanism, in DorfWiki, in P2PFoundation Blog, and in City for Tomorrow, October 2010. Also in ITALIAN.
A summary in POLISH in Nasza Przestrzen, October 2010.

2012 -- Why Monotonous Repetition is Unsatisfying, Permaculture Research Institute, 4 January 2012, reprinting of a 2011 article from Meandering Through Mathematics.

2012 -- Peer-to-Peer Themes and Urban Priorities for the Self-organizing Society, Permaculture Research Institute, 7 February 2012, reprinting of a 2010 article from the P2PFoundation.

2012 -- Geospatial Analysis and Living Urban Geometry (with Pietro Pagliardini and Sergio Porta), Permaculture Research Institute, 27 March 2012. Republication of a 2010 chapter from an edited book.

2012 -- Urbanism as Computation, Keynote speech at the "Complexity Theory of Cities" Conference, Delft, September 2009. Chapter in: J. Portugali, H. Meyer, E. Stolk & E. Tan, Eds., Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age, Springer, Berlin (2012) pages 247-270 (also HERE). Simple geometrical criteria for judging whether urban fabric is adaptive or not show that horizontal sprawl is computationally equivalent to skyscrapers (both non-adaptive), while the interventions of starchitects are random and therefore anti-urban.

2012 -- A series of articles on sacred architecture in Crisis Magazine:

  1. Why Contemporary Architecture is Against God and Man (with James Kalb), 13 August 2012. Republication of an article that first appeared in Public Discourse in 2011 with a different title. Reprinted in Kitchener Waterloo Traditional Catholic (16 August 2012).
  2. A Tale of Two Cathedrals, 29 August 2012. Republication of an article that appeared in Chiesa Oggi, No. 87 (2009). Reprinted in part in California Catholic Daily (13 September 2012)
  3. "Making Wholeness Heals the Maker": Why Human Flourishing Requires the Creative Act, 17 September 2012. Discussion in 4Real, September 2012.
  4. Fashion and Design Ideology in Sacred Architecture: A Review of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, 23 October 2012. Reprinted in Free Republic (24 October 2012), in Kitchener Waterloo Traditional Catholic (24 October 2012), and in The Byzantine Forum (27 October 2012).

2012 -- Interview with Manner of Man Magazine, 1 March 2012.

2012 -- Nikos versus il Bauhaus (in italian), Il Covile, No. 699, 19 maggio di 2012.

2012 -- Beauty, Life, and the Geometry of the Environment, Chapter 2 of: Reclaiming Beauty, Volume I, Agnes Horvath & James B. Cuffe, Editors, Ficino Press, Cork, Ireland, 2012: pages 63-103. Edited version of an essay from the Athens Dialogues, November 2010.

2012 -- THE METROPOLIS ESSAYS, NEW SERIES (with Michael Mehaffy), MetropolisMag.com:
11. Science for Designers: Intelligence and the Information Environment (25 February 2012).
12. Science for Designers: The Meaning of Complexity (30 March 2012). Reprinted in LivabilityLaw, and by Pichaus, 30 March 2012. "For me, this essay was like a flash of insight, and I suddenly saw the world in a new light", Oeyvind Holmstad, Permaliv, 21 April 2012.
13. Science for Designers: The Transformation of Wholes (13 April 2012). Reprinted in LivabilityLaw, 13 April 2012.
14. Science for Designers: Scaling and Fractals (28 May 2012).
15. Science for Designers: Complex Adaptive Systems (6 August 2012).

2012 -- The Tyranny of Artistic Modernism (with Mark Anthony Signorelli), New English Review, 1 August 2012 (PDF version).
"Now and then a work of art speaks truth to power with such effectiveness that it is less a work of art than an act of history. The poet Mark Signorelli and the mathematician Nikos Salingaros have accomplished this in their essay 'The Tyranny of Artistic Modernism'" -- David Brussat.

Reprinted in Comovente Beleza (2 August 2012), and in Ignis Ardens (6 August 2012). Discussion in New English Review. Mentioned in Metropolitan Hamilton (2 August 2012), Stylesque (5 August 2012). COMMENTS: Julio Lemos in portuguese (1 August 2012), Myriam Mahiques, Steven Schloeder (4 August 2012), David Brussat (5 August 2012), R. R. Reno in First Things (6 August 2012), James Kalb in Turnabout (6 August 2012), Josh Rothman in the Boston Globe (7 August 2012), David Kidd in the Intecollegiate Studies Institute, Jerry Salyer in Front Porch Republic reprinted in Salon.com, Michael in Dalrymple.org (8 August 2012), Frank Wilson (9 August 2012), James Higham Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 in Nourishing Obscurity (14, 16 & 18 August 2012), William M. Briggs (16 August 2012), David Brussat -- Part 1 and Part 2 in the Providence Journal (14 & 16 August 2012). Laura Wood in The Thinking Housewife (19 August 2012), The Great Zero Gate (20 August 2012), Beauty & Order (21 August 2012), The Deep End (22 August 2012), Mark Richardson on Oz Conservative (26 August 2012).

2012 -- La creazione dell’integrità sana il creatore, Il Covile No. 726, 22 Novembre 2012. Ripubblicazione d'un articolo apparso in Il Covile No. 507, Aprile 2009, e in inglese in Crisis Magazine, 17 Settembre 2012.

2012 -- Kolmogorov-Chaitin Complexity, Meandering Through Mathematics, 23 September 2012.

2012 -- Biophilia (with Michael Mehaffy), reprinting of a 2011 article, Permaliv, 24 November 2012.

2012 -- The Radical Technology of Christopher Alexander (with Michael Mehaffy), reprinting of a 2011 article, Permaculture Research Institute, 6 December 2012.  

2012 -- La Tecnologia Sostenibile di Christopher Alexander (with Michael Mehaffy), Nemeton, 11 December 2012, italian version of an article published in Metropolis on 19 September 2011.

2012 -- Applications of the Golden Mean to Architecture, Meandering Through Mathematics, 21 February 2012; reprinted by Laa -- Laboratoire Analyse Architecture, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, 12 December 2012.

2013 -- Why Contemporary Architecture is Against God and Man (with James Kalb), reprinting of a 2011 article, Reclaiming Beauty, 29 March 2013.

2013 -- Reductionism Undermines Both Science and Culture (with Ramray Bhat), New English Review, 1 March 2013 (PDF version); republished in Minority Opinion, 15 March 2013.

2013 -- Beauty and Tradition Unmask a Pretend Modernity, Solidarity Hall, 23 March 2013; reprinted in Crisis Magazine, 28 March 2013.

2013 -- La nécessité mathématique de l'ornement, Névroses Urbaines, 25 Mars 2013; extrait d'un article de 2000.

2013 -- Violence et nihilisme dans le modernisme, un très bref résumé de "The Tyranny of Artistic Modernism" traduit par Richard Tanniger, Névroses Urbaines, 1 Avril 2013.

2013 -- L'urbanistica "Peer-to-Peer", Biourbanistica, 12 Aprile 2013, versione in italiano di un'intervista con Michel Bauwens dal 2008.

2013 -- POLISH version of Architectural memes in a universe of information, Teoria Architektury, 26 June 2013.

2013 -- Intelligence and the Information Environment, reprinting of a 2012 article, Permaliv, 16 May 2013.

2013 -- Design methods, emergence, and collective intelligence, republication of Chapter 10 of "Principles of Urban Structure", Techne Press, Amsterdam, 2005), Flexus Foundation, April 2013.

2013 -- New Sources of Energy, interview with Jessen Soopramanien in Capital, Issue 117, pages 8-9, 20 February 2013, republished online in Africa News, 28 July 2013, and in ArchiDATUM, 19 August 2013.

2013 -- Energy Advice: Think Long Term and at the Local Level!, interview with Mumtaz Soogund, Permaculture Research Institute, 25 March 2013, reprinted in Resilience, 27 March 2013, and Silicon Investor, 29 March 2013. Corrected version of interview originally published on Defimedia, 8 March 2013, reprinted on Permaliv, 13 March 2013. NORWEGIAN version, Kulturverk, 7 April 2013.

2013 -- The Quest to "Liberate" Architecture from Modernism's Evils, interview with Vanessa Quirk in ArchDaily, 8 July 2013; reprinted in Style of Design, Socializarq and Nicholas Socrates Architecture & Urban Design, 8 July 2013; with the new title Why Modernism Is The Worst Thing That Ever Happened To Architecture, in Business Insider, World News Views, Hotnewser, 14 July 2013, and World Architecture, 21 July 2013. -- "This is one of the most brilliant and insightful articles I have ever read on the subject." SPANISH version: Buscando "liberar" a la Arquitectura de los males del Modernismo, Plataforma Arquitectura, y en ArchDaily México, 15 de Julio 2013, en 2arquitectos, 16 de Julio 2013.

2013 -- From Industrial to Artisan: Modernism's Sleight-of-Hand, ArchDaily, 17 July 2013; reprinted in Nicholas Socrates Architecture & Urban Design, and Style of Design, 17 July 2013. -- "This is the single most intelligent and illuminating article I've seen on Archdaily in 3 years." PORTUGUESE version: Do Industrial ao Artesanal: o Truque do Modernismo, ArchDaily Brasil, 1 Agosto 2013.

2013 -- L'architecture doit aider l'homme à s'épanouir, pas à se sentir emprisonné !, interview avec Jean-Claude Antoine dans Le Mauricien, 28 Juillet, 2013.

2013 -- Intellectual [dis]Honesty in Architecture (with Kenneth Masden), New English Review, 1 September 2013 (PDF version). Revised extract from a 2008 article in IJAR.

2013 -- The Architect Has No Clothes (with Michael Mehaffy), Permaculture Research Institute, 13 November 2013. Republication of a 2011 article titled "Architectural Myopia".

2013 -- The Tyranny of Artistic Modernism (with Mark Anthony Signorelli), P2P Foundation, 8 December 2013. Republication of a 2012 article.

 


CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MY PUBLICATIONS WITH DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS.

NOTE: For copyright reasons, many papers have had to be taken off the web. I'm happy to provide them to anyone wishing to use them in a course, for republishing, or for translation. Interested readers could also conduct a web search under a paper's title, since other sites have posted early copies of my papers.


The Laws of Architecture from a Physicist's Perspective
Physics Essays 8 (1995), pages 638-643. Chapter 1 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Three architectural laws follow from how matter comes together to form coherent structures; they are satisfied by most buildings in history up to (but excluding) the twentieth century. This paper established the mathematical approach to architectural design and interpretation of the built environment pioneered by Christopher Alexander. Las Leyes de la Arquitectura desde la Perspectiva de un Físico, traducción en español, El Hombre y la Máquina, No 16, Abril de 2001, páginas 12-23. También en La Simetria, Febrero de 2002, approx. 12 páginas. Republicado por Deconstructivismo (Abril de 2007). Por analogía con principios físicos básicos se obtienen tres leyes applicables al orden arquitectónico, que son válidas tanto para las estructuras naturales como para las construidas por el hombre. As Leis da Arquitetura na Perspectiva de um Físico, tradução em Português disponível nos formatos pdf e WORD (October 2003).


Life and Complexity in Architecture From a Thermodynamic Analogy
Physics Essays 10 (1997), pages 165-173. Chapter 5 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Subject of Appendix 6 of Christopher Alexander's book The Phenomenon of Life: The Nature of Order, Volume 1, 2003. A model visually estimates the comparative degree of organized complexity (i.e., the "life") of buildings, and contrasts this with their disorganized complexity. This model introduced the "Temperature" and "Harmony" measures, which are remarkably accurate in predicting user responses, and which permit buildings in any style and from any period to be classified within a unified scheme.


Theory of the Urban Web
Journal of Urban Design 3 (1998), pages 53-71. Chapter 1 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Earlier version published by RUDI -- Resource for Urban Design Information in 1997. A living city depends on an enormous number of different interacting paths, and the evolution of an urban region from "dead" to "alive" is sudden. Dead cities need to become more connected to regain urban vitality. Thinking of the city as an urban web created a paradigm shift from the conception of cities composed of isolated buildings. Kaupunki Verkostona, Finnish translation, Tampere University of Technology, Institute of Urban Planning, publication No. 33 (2000). [To order a copy, contact Fax 358-3-3653206]. Teoría de la Red Urbana, traducción en Español, Cuadernos de Arquitectura y Nuevo Urbanismo, Numero 3, Septiembre 2007, páginas 5-18. A Teoria da Teia Urbana, tradução em Português disponível nos formatos PDF e WORD.

 

Review of Christopher Alexander's "A Pattern Language" for amazon.com (May 1998), approx. 1 page.

 

A Scientific Basis for Creating Architectural Forms
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 15 (1998), pages 283-293. Chapter 2 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. A scaling rule is proposed for architectural elements, based on the scaling factor e = 2.718, the base for natural logarithms. This rule determines an optimal way to subdivide forms so as to achieve design coherence. Arguments are given for why this rule is universal, since it is found in nature, artefacts, buildings, and cities.


Urban Space and its Information Field
Journal of Urban Design 4 (1999), pages 29-49. Chapter 2 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. I explain why some urban spaces are used, while others are avoided. Urban space is characterized by an information field generated by surrounding surfaces, which in turn determines the optimal position of paths and local activity nodes. These rules enable us to build nourishing urban spaces today, and explain why both urban spaces from the past several decades and recently "restyled" historic urban spaces are dead. Espaço Urbano e seu campo de informação, tradução em Português.

 

Architecture, Patterns, and Mathematics
Nexus Network Journal 1, No. 2 (1999), pages 75-85. Reprinted by Any Architect (March 2004). Chapter 6 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. The elimination of complex visual patterns in twentieth century architecture could be handicapping people's capacity for mathematical thinking, which works strictly in terms of pattern organization. An architecture that denies ordered patterns in the environment is doing very serious damage to our minds.

 

A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes (co-authored with Bruce J. West)
Environment and Planning B 26 (1999), pages 909-923. Chapter 3 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Most structurally evolved (as well as aesthetically pleasing) objects and designs obey an inverse power-law distribution in their subdivisions. This is a widely-observed relationship in both the natural and social sciences, and arises from arguments such as allometric scaling in biology. Modernist design intentionally violates this rule.


Ecology and the Fractal Mind in the New Architecture: A Conversation with Victor Padrón
RUDI -- Resource for Urban Design Information (2000), approximately 12 pages. Our fractal mind mirrors Jungian archetypes that influence the design of man-made structures such as buildings, cities, and artworks. Because the underlying geometries are incompatible, the modernist anti-fractal attitude is antithetical to ecological thinking. PERSIAN VERSION, KHANEH Quarterly, Volumes 4&5 (Winter & Spring 2003) [pdf].

 

Pavements as Embodiments of Meaning for a Fractal Mind (co-authored with Terry M. Mikiten and Hing-Sing Yu)
Nexus Network Journal 2 (2000), pages 61-72. Chapter 7 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. The mind establishes a connection with the environment by processing information. By acting as a vehicle for conveying meaning, visual patterns play a role in connecting human beings to surrounding structures through the fractality of visual information (and fail to connect when the environment is not fractal). The design on pavements transfers meaning from our surroundings to our awareness.

 

The Structure of Pattern Languages
Architectural Research Quarterly 4 (2000), pages 149-161. Chapter 8 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Patterns encapsulate information about recurring design solutions and human activities. Techniques for linking observed patterns validate a pattern language, and dismiss stylistic rules as arbitrary or even harmful. This discussion helps in applying Christopher Alexander's "A Pattern Language" to design. Combining patterns on urban interfaces defines a new kind of livable region. PERSIAN VERSION [pdf]. VERSION CASTELLANA en Cuadernos de Arquitectura y Nuevo Urbanismo, No. 5, Noviembre 2008, páginas 35-48.
Comments by E. Todd, E. Kemp, and C. Phillips [pdf].

 

Hierarchical Cooperation in Architecture, and the Mathematical Necessity for Ornament
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (2000), pages 221-235. Chapter 3 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Coherent structures follow the theory of hierarchical systems, developed in computer science and biology, showing how ornament on the scales 1cm - 2m is necessary for architectural coherence. The scaling rule provides a useful design tool for achieving coherence. La Nécéssité Mathématique de l'Ornement, traduction française (contenant environs 50% du texte original), Revue BénéFique (Lyon) 2 (2002), pages 151-174. Il est établi que la conception architecturale doit être organisée hiérarchiquement. Pour ce faire, je présente une méthode et une formule dérivée, basées sur la biologie et l'informatique. [Disponible aussi en format WORD]

 

Complexity and Urban Coherence
Journal of Urban Design 5 (2000), pages 291-316. Chapter 4 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. The theory of complex systems is applied to urban design. Coherence in city form comes from assembling components using intense local couplings together with long-range connections that reduce disorder. These results show that the top-down planned industrial city lacks the complexity necessary for accommodating human life. A new conception of the city as an interacting system reverses the misguided idea of post-war zoning. Complessità  e Coerenza Urbana, versione italiana, Nexus Lab (2007), 23 pagine. Repubblicata en PLANUM (2007). C'è anche una traduzione parziale, Strumenti per la Pianificazione e Progettazione Sostenibile (2000), circa 10 pagine. Applicazione della teoria dei sistemi complessi alla progettazione urbana. La coerenza della struttura urbana risulta dalle interconnessioni tra elementi diversi.

 

A Pattern Measure (co-authored with Allen Klinger)
Environment and Planning B 27 (2000), pages 537-547. A quantitative model for computing the organized complexity of arrays containing different symbols is applied to measure the degree to which people connect with a design. This is an elaboration of the model for architectural complexity using the "Temperature" and "Harmony" measures. [An earlier version was entitled Complexity and Visual Images]. PERSIAN VERSION of A Pattern Measure [pdf].


Fractals in the New Architecture
Portions of Ecology and the Fractal Mind in the New Architecture republished as an essay with new illustrations. Archimagazine (2001), approximately 6 pages. Republished in Katarxis No. 3 (September 2004). Reprinted in World Architecture (March 2009). The urban fabric is characterized as a fractal. Complex structure is evident at every level of scale, and all the different scales cooperate to define a unified whole. The crucial fractal scales are those on the human range of dimensions. I Frattali Nella Nuova Architettura, in italiano, Archimagazine (2001), circa 6 pagine. Capitolo nel libro No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze, 2009. Il tessuto urbano vivente mostra delle caratteristiche frattali: cioè, un complesso coerente con struttura definita ad ogni scala (con 7 figure). PERSIAN VERSION published in Architecture Quarterly, volume 26 (summer 2004), pages 27-28.

 

Entretien en français avec Archicool -- Paris, Janvier de 2001.

 

Modularity and the Number of Design Choices (co-authored with Débora M. Tejada)
Nexus Network Journal 3 Number 1 (2001), pages 99-109. Chapter 8 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. We argue that modularity severely restricts the creativity of design, and support our argument by comparing the number of possible design choices in modular and non-modular design systems. Early industrial modularization was very successful, because its modules are internally complex and ordered, but not empty.

 

Remarks on a City's Composition
Journal of Design Research 4, Issue 1 (March 2004), approximately 14 pages. Shorter version published in RUDI -- Resource for Urban Design Information in 2001, and republished by Cartage in 2003. Chapter 5 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. This essay expands on Christopher Alexander's classic essay "A city is not a tree". A living city's components connect according to the theory of complex hierarchical systems. The distribution of path lengths follows an inverse-power scaling law. FINNISH VERSION: Kaupunki ei todellakaan ole puu, translation of only the first half of the article, Yhteiskuntasuunnittelu -- The Finnish Journal of Urban Studies 39 (2001), pages 68-76.

 

The End of Tall Buildings (co-authored with James Howard Kunstler)
PLANetizen (September 2001), approximately 5 pages. Reprinted in: Bruce Ballenger, The Curious Writer (Pearson-Longman, New York, 2005), pages 249-254. Reprinted in: Planetizen’s Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning, edited by Abhijeet Chavan, Christian Peralta & Christopher Steins (Island Press, Washington DC, 2007), pages 117-122. Results of this paper used by Sue Roaf in Chapter 11 of her book Adapting Buildings and Cities for Climate Change, Architectural Press, Oxford, 2005. We argue that the age of skyscrapers is at an end, and that 9/11 marks the beginning of the end of modernist typologies dominating urban form. La fin des "bâtiments-tours" (avec James Howard Kunstler), traduction française, Archicool (Octobre 2001), circa 5 pages. Nous sommes convaincus que l'âge des gratte-ciels touche à  sa fin. Il faut maintenant considérer les immeubles de grande hauteur comme faisant partie d'une typologie périmée et d'une expérimentation ayant échoué. PERSIAN VERSION [pdf].
Comments by: Anthony Flint in the Boston Globe, 2001; Benjamin Forgey in the Washington Post, 2001; Neal Peirce in the Seattle Times, 2001; Bash Mohandis, 2007.

 

The Future Of Cities: The Absurdity of Modernism -- Nikos Salingaros interviews Léon Krier
PLANetizen (November 2001), approximately 10 pages. Edited version reprinted in Urban Land 61 (January 2002), pages 12-15. Portions also published in Katarxis No. 2 with illustrations (2002), approximately 8 pages. Reprinted in World Architecture (March 2009). The godfather of New Urbanism offers his perspective on the future of cities. The most beautiful cities which survive in the world today have all been conceived with buildings of between two and five floors -- the era of the utilitarian skyscraper is at an end. Il Futuro delle Città : l'Assurdità  del Modernismo -- Nikos Salingaros intervista Léon Krier, traduzione italiana, Archimagazine (Febbraio 2002), circa 9 pagine. Repubblicato in Il Covile (2002). Adesso un capitolo nel libro No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze, 2009. Il "padre" del movimento New Urbanism offre la sua prospettiva sul futuro delle città. Le città  più belle che sopravvivono oggi sono state concepite con edifici di altezza tra due e cinque piani. El Futuro de las Ciudades: Lo Absurdo del Modernismo -- Nikos Salíngaros entrevista Léon Krier, traducción en español, Ambiente (Marzo de 2004), approx. 9 páginas; con una traducción distincta AQUÍ. El "padre" del movimento New Urbanism ofrece su perspectiva sobre el futuro de las ciudades. No hay en sentido estricto una correlación entre la presión demográfica y los edificios altos (con la excepción rara del tipo de condiciones encontradas en Hong Kong). SWEDISH VERSION: Om stadernas framtid och det absurda i modernismen -- Nikos Salingaros intervju med Léon Krier, Tvarsnitt Nr. 4, 2003. PERSIAN VERSION [pdf].

 

Review of Anthony Vidler's "Warped Space. Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture", Journal of Urban Design 6 (2001), pages 332-334. Reprinted as Part 5 of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004, 2008.


The End of the Modern World (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy)
PLANetizen (January 2002), approximately 4 pages. Revised version published by Open Democracy (March 2002), and by Orthodoxy Today (November 2007). Reprinted in World Architecture (March 2009). Portions of this paper used by Roger Scruton in his book The West and the Rest: Globalization and the Terrorist Threat (ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware, 2002). Part of the driving force in the recent terrorist attacks is traced to a rage in the third world against modernist planning. The West has to develop a new respect for traditional urban and design cultures. [Also available in PDF].

 

Geometrical Fundamentalism (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy)
Plan Net Online Architectural Resources (January 2002). Chapter 9 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. We identify a geometrical disconnectedness as an integral part of modernist architecture and planning, and suggest that this is in part responsible for why the rest of the world resents the industrialized western nations. This essay singles out Le Corbusier for condemnation. Il Fondamentalismo Geometrico (con Michael W. Mehaffy), traduzione italiana, Professione Architetto (Febbraio 2002), circa 20 pagine. Versione migliorata pubblicata in Il Covile No. 108 (2002). Repubblicato in L'Inventario della Fierucola (Firenze) No. 24-25-26 (Agosto 2003), pagine 24-38. Capitolo nel libro No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze, 2009. L'architettura modernista del XX secolo è stata guidata da un credo visivo (estetico!) basato sulle forme geometriche semplicistiche. Si ritiene che questo fenomeno crei un risentimento nelle nazioni non-industrializzate.
Comment: "'Geometrical Fundamentalism' -- which to my mind takes care of Modernism in a scant two words -- is only one of the many beauties Nikos has coined." -- Michael Blowhard, Introduction to "Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction", Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004; Second Edition 2007. Comentários neste artigo, no português, por Julio Lemos.

 

Darwinian Processes and Memes in Architecture: A Memetic Theory of Modernism (co-authored with Terry M. Mikiten)
Journal of Memetics -- Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 6 (2002), approximately 15 pages. Reprinted in DATUTOP Journal of Architectural Theory 23 (2002), pages 117-139. Chapter 10 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Designs develop via a Darwinian process, whether in history, or in the mind of the designer. Architecture and urbanism in the twentieth century are driven by images, called "memes", that propagate in the minds of people. This process is analogous to the spread of viruses. By becoming ingrained, these visual images prevent the evolution of more adaptive design solutions. POLISH VERSION [PDF], also available in DOC format.

 

A Missed Learning Opportunity
PLANetizen (September 2002), approximately 3 pages. The architectural implications of the September 11, 2001 tragedy. Have planners and architects overlooked the moral lesson to practice humane urban design?

 

Guest on WBUR Boston -- National Public Radio Forum "Preserving Modern Architecture", October 18, 2002. Is it worth saving? The full program can be heard on the Internet.

 

Twentieth-Century Architecture as a Cult
INTBAU Volume 1, Essay Number 3 (November 2002), approximately 6 pages. Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004. Cult methods were applied to make modernism into a new cult -- an extremely dangerous one because of its virulence and destructive aims. A key aspect was its absolute belief in the necessity of eliminating all examples of pre-modernist architecture. GERMAN VERSION: Architektur des 20. Jahrhunderts als Kult, UMBAU-VERLAG (April 2004), approx. 5 pages. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-architecture et Déconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. HUNGARIAN VERSION, Ingyenweb (2007).
Comment: "Nikos Salingaros raises something that I think should be reasonable to anybody who has experienced the rituals of architecture school, and survived the perils of indoctrination with their sensible open mind intact."

 

Anti-architecture and Religion
Sacred Architecture Issue 7 (Fall/Winter 2002), pages 11-13. Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004; Second Edition 2007. Traditional religions created built order as a geometrical expression of faith using physical materials. All of this ended abruptly in the twentieth century -- not only the creation of enlightened spaces, but also our attachment through architecture to a higher form of order in the universe. Anti-arquitectura e Religião, tradução em Português, Brotéria (Lisboa) 155 (Novembro 2002), páginas 381-388. Ao querer explicar um mistério cultural -- porque é que o mundo renunciou a edifícios emocionalmente nutridores, e adoptou, em vez deles, edifícios que nos fazem literalmente mal -- deparamse obstáculos severos. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-architecture et Déconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.
Comment: "This article is essential, absolutely essential. I'm not going to waste time discussing it. Read it!" -- Julio Lemos (February 2003). Comentários neste artigo, por Julio Lemos.

 

Review of Steven Pinker's "The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature", Katarxis No. 3, September 2004. Summary published on amazon.com in December 2002.


Deconstructing The Decons: The World Trade Center Project Spotlights The Empire's Newest Clothes (co-authored with Michael W. Mehaffy)
PLANetizen (January 2003), approximately 4 pages. Republished in Café l'Urbanité & Architecture (January 2003), and by Southeastern University (Nanjing, China) (2004). Shortened version published by The American Enterprise Volume 13, No. 2 (March 2003), page 13. Full version reprinted in Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004; 2008. The World Trade Center reconstruction proposals reveal that the architecture profession's avant-garde is hopelessly mired in a failed past. This project may indeed be "ground zero" for a self-pitying movement, built on an antiquated scientific world view and a modern philosophical fallacy. El Nuevo Traje del Emperador (escrito con Michael Mehaffy), traducción en español, Ambiente Revista 90 (Marzo de 2003), approximadamente 7 páginas, republicado por Deconstructivismo (Febrero de 2007). Las propuestas para la reconstrucción del World Trade Center presentadas por algunos de los más importantes arquitectos del mundo revelan una curiosa situación: la vanguardia de la arquitectura se encuentra atrapada desesperadamente en un pasado fracasado. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-architecture et Déconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.

 

Two Languages for Architecture
Plan Net Online Architectural Resources (February 2003). Also in Architettura, Comunità  e Partecipazione: Quale Linguaggio?, Università Degli Studi Roma Tre -- Facoltà  di Architettura (Aracne Editrice, Roma, 2003), pages 41-45. Expanded version is Chapter 11 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Architecture and urbanism are guided by two distinct languages -- a pattern language, and a form language. The pattern language contains rules for how human beings interact with built forms, whereas a form language consists of geometrical rules for putting matter together. A threshold of combinatorial properties rules out adaptivity for modernist and deconstructivist styles, which turn out to be far too simplistic to serve as design languages.

 

Death, Life, and Libeskind (co-authored with Brian Hanson)
Architectural Record Online -- In the Cause of Architecture (February 2003), approximately 10 pages. Shortened version entitled Daniel Libeskind's Architecture of Death published by 2Blowhards (January 2003), approximately 4 pages. Full version with a new appendix reprinted as Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004; Second Edition 2007. We contrast two distinct threads in the architecture of Daniel Libeskind -- the geometry employed in his Holocaust Memorials, and the geometry of those buildings whose purpose is life and regeneration. We find no difference whatsoever between the two types, thus concluding that Libeskind's buildings cannot serve to bring architecture to life. PERSIAN VERSION published in KHANEH Quarterly, Volumes 6 & 7 (Summer & Autumn 2004) [pdf]. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-architecture et Déconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.
Comment: "This also explains why I get 'bad vibes'; the decon sense of life reminds me of the bits and pieces of deconstructed style I've encountered in literature, history and art, and wherever I find it, its total rejection of beauty and truth gives me 'the deepest creeps'."

 

Adaptive evolution, not modernism, produces architecture 'of our time' (co-authored with Michael Mehaffy)
The Post and Courier (Charleston) 6 April 2003, page 13A. The recent controversy over the addition to Charleston's Simons Center has focussed on the notion that such a prominent work of architecture must be "of its own time." It seems that proponents of this idea want the architecture of our time to reject all traditional ornamentation, typology, and scale in favor of the familiar minimalist industrial geometries of early 20th century modernism and its descendants. This view is -- rather ironically -- mired in the past.

 

The Danger of Deconstructivism
2Blowhards (April 2003), approximately 8 pages (with an introduction by Michael Blowhard). Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004; Second Edition 2007. In a conversation with Terry Mikiten, I discuss the danger that deconstructivist architecture poses to our evolved perception of order. It uses our sensory mechanisms to undo the meaning human beings attach to their environment. Il Pericolo del Decostruttivismo, versione italiana pubblicata in Temi di Stefano Borselli No. 123 (Febbraio 2003), circa 3 pagine. Appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. L'architettura da sempre incorpora la nostra concezione del mondo, la sua struttura e il come intendiamo la struttura dell'universo nel momento attuale. L'architettura decostruttivista ci esibisce la visione di un mondo distrutto, di un universo ridotto in briciole, in frantumi di vetro. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-architecture et Déconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006.
Comment: "Another reality that Salingaros rediscovers is the existence of truth and its relevance for human community. The lack of a commonly-shared code of truth destroys a society." -- Giannozzo Pucci (April 2003). Osservazioni su questo articolo, dal Giannozzo Pucci.

 

Interview with ORF Vienna -- Austrian National Broadcasting Corporation, "Connecting the Fractal City", May 2003. Interview was taped and broadcast in English -- German summary is posted on the web.

 

A Week With Nikos Salingaros
Interview with 2Blowhards.com (New York City), May 2003. PERSIAN VERSION of A Week With Nikos Salingaros -- Interview with 2Blowhards.com (New York City), originally published on May 2003 [PDF]. Complete translation into Persian. An incomplete version of portions of A Week With Nikos Salingaros was published earlier on Bahram Yousefi's online architectural magazine (Tehran).

 

Pattern Language and Interactive Design
"Inventing the City", Poiesis Architecture (Toulouse) No. 15 (2003), pages 385-405. Chapter 9 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Earlier version entitled How the Pattern Language Defines a Geometry for Urban Interfaces, published in: Progettare con la Comunità : Metodi e Nuove Professionalità  a Confronto, Università  Rome Tre, Rome, 2000, pages 15-21. Following the work of Christopher Alexander, I use "Patterns" to aid in urban design. The method allows inhabitants of a particular neighborhood to participate in planning their own environment, while preserving and reinforcing those patterns that define the "sacred spaces" of the community. Les « modèles » : un langage commun pour la conception participative, version française, Inventer la Ville, Poiesis Architecture (Toulouse) No. 15 (2003), pages 385-405. En utilisant les travaux de Christopher Alexander, je présente une méthode qui utilise les « patterns » pour faciliter la conception des projects urbains. A linguagem de padrões e o desenho interativo [PDF], tradução em Português. VERSION CASTELLANA en Cuadernos de Arquitectura y Nuevo Urbanismo, No. 5, Noviembre 2008, páginas 50-55.

 

The Sensory Value of Ornament
Communication & Cognition 36 No. 3-4 (2003), pages 331-351. Revised version is Chapter 4 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. Human beings connect with a given structure through the meaningful information it offers. We seek information encoded by color, detail, curvature, and organization in a design because it is an essential part of our neurophysiology. Design that aims to create a healing environment has to be based upon physiology, not visual styles.

 

The Derrida Virus
TELOS No. 126 (2003), pages 66-82. Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2008. Deconstruction can be understood by analogy to a virus -- a purely parasitic phenomenon -- and its products as essentially nonsensical media for encoding the viral template. By offering an obvious and highly visible form, deconstruction's manifestation in buildings is particularly dangerous. Deconstructivist architectural theory is only a clever strategy to replace adaptive built environment with buildings that causes physiological distress. O virus Derrida [PDF], a tradução incompleta no português. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in "Anti-Architecture et Dècostruction", Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION of appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.
Comments: "Nikos Salingaros thoroughly eviscerates the nonsense that passes for deconstructionist architectural 'theory' and goes on to explain why it won't just go away and die. With considerable precision and wit he characterises the deconstructionist meme as 'the Derrida virus' and shows how it propagates within society and results in the cult that is the contemporary architectural establishment." -- Sajjad Afzal-Woodward (September 2005). Comment by Hurree Babu.

 

Review of Christopher Alexander's "The Process of Creating Life: The Nature of Order, Book 2". Published on amazon.com (November 2003), approximately 2 pages.

 

'Annotations on an Implicit Text' -- the work of Nicolas Gomez-Davila
2Blowhards.com (December 2003), approximately 4 pages. The first-ever presentation of the Colombian philosopher's aphorisms in English. A selection especially relevant to architecture and urbanism. Gomez-Davila provides a saving antidote to the nihilism propagated by the 20C "French philosophical school" that includes Barthes, Derrida, and Foucault.

 

Salingaros on Kahn
2Blowhards.com (December 2003), approximately 4 pages. Personal impressions of some of the celebrated American architect Louis Kahn's buildings. This essay touches upon the possible role that Kahn could play in the New Architecture.


The Information Architecture of Cities (co-authored with L. Andrew Coward)
Journal of Information Science 30 No. 2 (2004), pages 107-118. Reprinted by Internet Changes Everything (January 2004). Chapter 7 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Cities are systems of informational architecture, in which high-level functionality separates the system into communicating modules. Information exchange in urban systems includes visual input from the environment, personal contact, telecommunications, as well as the movement of people. Introduces the concept of "fractal loading", where urban movement is tied to nourishing information exchange, and the concept of a city acting as a brain rather than as a computer. L'arquitectura de la informació en les ciutats (con L. Andrew Coward), MCRIT -- Sistemes de suport a la planificació (Barcelona) (December 2003), approx. 15 páginas, traducción en Catalán, disponible también en PDF.
Nominated for inclusion in "Best Software Essays of 2004". Comments on this article by Phil Jones (here or here), and by Richard Veryard (here). "Just discovered a fantastic paper that thinks about cities as information processing systems. Can't recommend this highly enough."

 

The New Acropolis Museum
2Blowhards.com (29 February 2004), approximately 5 pages. Republished in Temi di Stefano Borselli, No. 196 (4 March 2004), and in Archimagazine (16 April 2004). Reprinted in Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2008. Criticism of the proposed New Acropolis Museum in Athens designed by Bernard Tschumi. Touches on the topic of the returning the Elgin Marbles from the British Museum to Greece. El Nuevo Museo de la Acrópolis, traducción en Español, FORMA (4 Marzo de 2004), approx. 3 páginas. Il Nuovo Museo dell'Acropoli, Archimagazine (16 Aprile 2004), circa 7 pagine, ITALIAN VERSION with notes in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-Architecture et Décostruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. HUNGARIAN VERSION Ingyenweb (April 2007).
Comments: "As we propose it, the 'Athens Effect' describes the downfall of an institution (corporation, university, government, or nation) that embraces alien architecture. In short, it's the opposite of the 'Bilbao Effect', which describes the magic transformation Frank Gehry's museum is said to have wrought on the city of Bilbao." -- Michael Blowhard (March 2004). Also on Seablogger and INTBAU.

 

Connecting the Fractal City
Keynote speech, Fifth Biennial of Towns and Town Planners in Europe, Barcelona, April 2003. PLANUM -- The European Journal of Planning On-line (March 2004), approximately 17 pages. Chapter 6 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. Section 7 published separately by PLANetizen (October 2003), approximately 7 pages. Living cities have intrinsically fractal properties, in common with all living systems. I use lessons learned from the evolution of biological systems and the internet to discuss how the distribution of sizes, inverse-power scaling laws, and 'small-world' networks apply to generate living urban fabric. These rules provide a blueprint for cities in the new millennium, unfortunately contradicted on a massive scale by newly-built cities the world over. Connectando la Ciudad Fractal [PDF], Spanish version. CHINESE VERSION [PDF], also available in DOC format.
Comments: "Salingaros provides a useful starting point... His two fundamental fractal design principles are just as applicable to economic development planning as to urban spatial planning." -- Robert G. Dyck (2006). "The sexiest paper ever written." -- Sands and Sounds (March 2007). Comentarios sobre este artículo -- en Catalán, por Andreu Ulied.

 

Review of "The Nature of Order", and an interview with Christopher Alexander (in french and english), VOGUE HOMMES INTERNATIONAL 15 (Printemps-été 2004), pages 116-119. Part in Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2004, 2008.

 

Architectural Theory and the Work of Bernard Tschumi
2Blowhards (April-May 2004). Portion entitled Psychological Association in Tschumi's Texts republished by Greek Architects (December 2007). Entire article reprinted as Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2008. An essay that tries to make sense of contemporary architectural theory. I discuss some aspects of deconstructivism, with particular emphasis on the theoretical contributions of Bernard Tschumi. I outline the general requirements for an architectural theory, and show that what passes today for "theory" is just propaganda to promote a certain group of architects. This article has become a hot topic during the debate on the New Acropolis Museum in Athens. FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-Architecture et Décostruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.

 

Charles Jencks and the New Paradigm in Architecture
Shortened version published in Chaos & Complexity Letters Volume 1, No. 3 (2005), pages 325-329. Reprinted in: Nicoletta Sala, Editor, Chaos and Complexity in the Arts and Architecture (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2007), pages 129-133. Full version is published as a Part in Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, 2008. A "New Paradigm in Architecture" is indeed emerging, and it encompasses the innovative, humane architecture of Christopher Alexander and the traditional, humane architecture of Léon Krier. Significantly, it does not include deconstructivist buildings, contrary to claims made by Charles Jencks. Constant promotion of certain styles and individual achitects has numbed the public into accepting decades of dysfunctional architecture. Charles Jencks y el Nuevo Paradigma en Arquitectura, Spanish version, AMBIENTE Revista 97, 2006. Republicado por Arqa.com, por Arqchile.cl (Agosto de 2006), y tambien por Taller Del Rio+Sandoval (Abril de 2007). FRENCH VERSION appears as a chapter in Anti-Architecture et Décostruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. ITALIAN VERSION appears as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007.

 

Les gratte-ciel ont un effet destructeur sur la cité
Olivier Hertel interviews Nikos Salingaros, SCIENCES ET AVENIR No. 691 (Septembre 2004), page 63 (interview in french).

 

Aggression and Architectural Education: The "Coup" in Viseu
2Blowhards (September 2004). Reprinted as Part of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Third Edition 2008. My disappointment at the recent demise of the New School for Traditional Architecture & Urbanism in Viseu, Portugal. The sole architecture faculty in Europe teaching Classical and Traditional architecture was perceived as a threat to the dominance of the avant-garde establishment, and therefore it was closed down.
Comment: "Nikos Salingaros has just written about the architecture school in Viseu, Portugal, where a group of Modernists connived behind the scenes to replace the program with a new one just before the school year started." -- John Massengale (September 2004).

 

Design Methods, Emergence, and Collective Intelligence
Talk given at the Inaugural Conference, Delft School of Design, June 2004 [PHOTO]. Katarxis No. 3 (September 2004), approximately 18 pages. Chapter 10 of Principles of Urban Structure, Techne Press, Amsterdam, Holland, 2005. The two methods of adaptive top-down and adaptive bottom-up design are shown to be theoretically equivalent. Even though they differ drastically in their application, each one can help the other, and they may even be combined in a particular project. This understanding is made possible only by using design information stored in the traditional built environment. PERSIAN VERSION [pdf].

 

Review of Léon Krier's "Architecture: Choice or Fate" for amazon.com (October 2004), approx. 1 page.


Towards a New Urban Philosophy: The Case of Athens
Chapter 20 of: Shifting Sense -- Looking Back to the Future in Spatial Planning, edited by Edward Hulsbergen, Ina Klaasen & Iwan Kriens, Techne Press, Amsterdam, 2005, pages 265-280. Earlier version published in two parts as "City of Chaos", Greekworks.com (May & June 2004). [PART 1 & PART 2]. This essay presents some ideas on how to fix disasters in European urban planning and design, focusing on the case of Athens as a representative city with damaged urban fabric. A list of 28 rules is given for planning new adaptive urban fabric. VERSIONE ITALIANA è adesso un capitolo nel libro No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze, 2009. Second part of this article republished as Misapplied urbanism: the case of Athens, Greekarchitects (20 March 2009).


Imago et Civitas Diaboli (in Italian)
Il Covile No. 300, Speciale Architettura Religiosa (January 2006), approximately 9 pages. Reprinted as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. English version entitled Contemporary Church Architecture and Saint Augustine's 'The City of God' is included in the Second & Third Editions of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2007; 2008. New Churches built around the world, even in Rome by the Vatican, have spurred heated controversy because of their unecclesiastical form. Many Roman Catholics feel that those buildings' design makes them inappropriate for houses of worship, which is a pretty severe condemnation. The sacred character of the built environment extends beyond the physical confines of a house of worship.

 

Architectural Memes in a Universe of Information
Published in both English and French by Mondes Francophones (February 2006). Revised version is Chapter 12 of A Theory of Architecture, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2006. I describe a symbiosis between ideas, images, texts, and biological forms. Human culture consists of created objects as information, which form an essential extension of our biological bodies into our environment. Architecture means far more than shelter, because it propagates in societies as visual symbols, much like biological entities that are either beneficial or harmful to human beings.

 

La Scacchiera degli Stili Architettonici (in Italian)
Il Covile, No. 320 (2006). Reprinted as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. English version The Chessboard Model of Architectural Styles is included in the Second & Third Editions of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2007; 2008. A classification of architectural styles evolved throughout the ages distinguishes those that have a strong degree of "life" from those that don't. A methematical model shows that the "living" styles are far fewer in number than those without life. This model helps to explain the emergence of both traditional and modernist architectures.

 

Ara Pacis Augustae: evidenza d'un fenomeno architettonico in sviluppo (in Italian)
Il Covile, No. 329 (2006). Republished with the title È giusto smantellare l'Ara Pacis, Il Domenicale, No. 19 (10 May 2008), pages 1 & 4. Reprinted as a chapter in Antiarchitettura e Demolizione, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, Italy, 2007. English version is a Chapter in Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, 3rd Edition, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2008. The Roman Emperor Augustus built the “Altar of Peace” (Ara Pacis) in Rome in the year 13 BCE. In 1996 Richard Meier was designated to construct a new cover. The frankly non-adaptive character of Meier’s design unleashed strong protests and sparked off an architectural debate, ignited once more when the new museum building finally opened in 2006.

 

Compact City Replaces Sprawl
in: Crossover: Architecture, Urbanism, Technology, Edited by Arie Graafland & Leslie Kavanaugh (010 Publishers, Rotterdam, Holland, 2006), pages 100-115. Also in PDF. The inevitable forces generating sprawl on the urban periphery could be channeled to create livable communities. To achieve this, it is necessary to distinguish between unhealthy sprawl and real cities. Spanish version: La Ciudad Compacta Sustituye a la Dispersión. Chapter in: Francesco Indovina, Editor, La Ciudad de Baja Densidad, Diputació de Barcelona, Colección Estudios, Serie Territorio No. 1, Barcelona, 2007, páginas 481-498. Online version published in Archile.cl (May 2007). Republished by Gestión Urbana (February 2008).

 

Architecture: Biological Form and Artificial Intelligence (with Kenneth G. Masden II)
The Structurist, No. 45/46 (2006), pages 54-61. Reprinted in World Architecture (March 2009). Drawing from biology and artifical intelligence, we define the primary animating properties of living structure: (i) organized-complexity, (ii) metabolism, (iii) replication, (iv) adaptation, (v) intervention, (vi) situatedness, and (vii) connectivity. Looking to modern robotic science and technology, a strong correlation can be made between biologically-driven functions and the adaptive processes that once gave form to architecture. This analogy suggests a new direction for architecture in the 21st century.

 

Review of Christopher Alexander's book "The Luminous Ground: The Nature of Order, Book 4" (with Kenneth G. Masden II), The Structurist, No. 45/46 (2006), pages 39-42.


Restructuring 21st Century Architecture Through Human Intelligence (with Kenneth G. Masden II) [PDF]
Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research Vol 1, Issue 1 (March 2007), pages 36-52. Reprinted (HTML version) by Greekarchitects (19 February 2008). How the human mind perceives and interacts with the built environment introduces a compelling new way of thinking about, teaching, and practicing architecture. We call this new design process "intelligent architecture". Perhaps surprisingly, scientifically-conceived rules for architectural design and building can lead to a more human architecture, one with a renewed respect for traditional methods of architectural design.

 

Architectural Cannibalism in Athens
Orthodoxy Today (20 November 2007). Republished with minor revisions in Greekarchitects (28 November 2007). Included as part of the Third Edition of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, Umbau-Verlag, Solingen, Germany, 2008. The New Acropolis Museum designed by Bernard Tschumi is threatening two historic buildings with demolition. And yet, by their design cohesion and elegance, these architectural gems from 1890 and 1930 far overshadow the banal museum building in cultural value. HUNGARIAN VERSION, Építészfórum, 2 March 2009. GREEK VERSION published in Greekarchitects (July 2009).

 

Urbanism for Life: Let Children Help Design our Cities
Raise the Hammer (27 November 2007). Reprinted in World Architecture (March 2009). Here is a simple criterion for human design: Shape a city around our children. Modern cities have become terribly child-unfriendly. Even American suburbs, ostensibly built to give a better life to our families, are hostile to children in an insidious way because of the urban geometry. Versione italiana adesso un capitolo nel libro No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze, 2009.


Architettura Sacra Contemporanea: Religione o Nichilismo? (in Italian)
Il Covile, No. 427 (January 2008). Republished under the new title C'era una volta il bello: Il culto del nichilismo nell'architettura contemporanea in Il Domenicale, No. 12 (22 March 2008), pages 1, 6 & 7. Reprinted by Libero, and also available in PDF with pictures and PDF without pictures. New, innovative forms seen in the current trend of fashionable buildings (including religious architecture) are actually influenced by nihilistic philosophies. Philosophical relativism and the media have programmed contemporary society to accept disconnection and architectural nihilism. Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, in Italian, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009. This is the article that sparked the architectural revolution in Italy on 25 March 2008.

 

Religione e natura: le fonti architettoniche della bellezza
Italian essay translated from the Third English Edition of Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction, published in ATRIUM -- Studi metafisici ed umanistici, "Il Sacro, l'Arte, la Memoria: la misura dell'Arte", Anno X, Numero 2 (2008), pagine 42-49.

 

Growing Sustainable Suburbs: An Incremental Strategy for Reconstructing Sprawl (with Michael W. Mehaffy and Lucien Steil)
Chapter 10.2 in the book: New Urbanism & Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future, Tigran Haas, Editor, Rizzoli, New York, 2008: pages 262-274. Excerpt from full paper was posted earlier online by Raise the Hammer (April 2006). Reprinted by Portland Peak Oil (July 2006). A new way of understanding the growth of urban form leads to practical suggestions for reconstructing a more sustainable suburbia. Combining "top-down" controls with "bottom-up" processes offers guidelines for implementing small-scale changes that eventually lead to large-scale improvements.
Comments on this article.

 

Neuroscience, the Natural Environment, and Building Design (with Kenneth G. Masden II)
Chapter 5 of: Biophilic Design: the Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life, edited by Stephen R. Kellert, Judith Heerwagen, and Martin Mador (John Wiley, New York, 2008), pages 59-83 (also on Amazon). Part of our perceptive system looks for information, whereas another part looks for meaning,  thus giving rise to cultural, philosophical, and ideological constructs. Architects have come to operate in this second domain almost exclusively, which was not so in the past. Biophilia is helping to shape a new adaptive and sustainable design movement. Through Biophilic design, a new effort is made to reconnect human beings to the buildings and places they inhabit. Extract in italian published as: Biofilia, architettura per la mente, Il Domenicale, No. 30 (26 July 2008), page 11, also in HTML and PDF; reprinted in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009. Another extract in italian published as: L'architettura che supera la materialità, republished under the different title: Biofìlia: ovvero, la natura fatta casa, Il Domenicale, No. 51 (20 December 2008), page 10; also reprinted in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009.
*2008 American Publishers Award*. "I think [Biophilic Design] is one of the most important design books ever written, not just in the decade." -- Cheryl Charles.

 

I grattacieli? Utopie totalitarie. Serve un patto uomo-natura (in Italian)
Corriere della Sera (31 March 2008), page 35. Reprinted in Archiworld, PatrimonioSOS, Il Mosaico di Bergamo, and Regione Autonoma della Sardegna (April 2008), and also in PDF with alternative PDF. Response to Mario Botta and Massimiliano Fuksas, who dismissed my calls for a new adaptive architecture as "senseless nostalgias". Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009.

 

Intelligence-Based Design: A Sustainable Foundation For Worldwide Architectural Education (with Kenneth G. Masden II) [PDF]
Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research Vol 2, Issue 1 (March 2008), pages 129-188. Architectural theory as currently taught in modern universities throughout the world no longer provides a plausible basis for the discipline and practice of architecture. Students learn to copy fashionable images without understanding their geometry. We re-situate the education of an architect directly in human existence, human perception, and the human necessity of corporeal engagement with the built environment. Our model re-institutes values in local culture and identity throughout the world. Section of this article entitled Against Ecophobia: Towards a Human Habitat published in Greekarchitects.net (20 September 2008). Ecophobia is the blind hatred of one's native culture and of nature. Fashionable contemporary architecture has become succesful primarily by turning people against their proper heritage and tradition. Italian version Contro l'ecofobia, per un habitat umano published in Il Domenicale, No. 14 (5 April 2008), pages 6-7; reprinted in Il Mascellaro, and in Alessandro Serra (April 2008). Now a Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009. Another section of this article entitled Politics, Philosophy, Critical Theory, and Human Perception was published in two parts in Archiwatch (PART 1, PART 2) and republished together in World Architecture Community, February 2009.
Comments in Italian by Isabella Guarini HERE and HERE, republished together in Il Covile, No. 496, 18 February 2009.

 

Respect for the Human Scale
NEXT AMERICAN CITY, Issue 18: Living Under Peril (Spring 2008). A more complete version was published (Summer 2008) in two parts: PART 1 & PART 2. Lakis Polycarpou interviews James Howard Kunstler and Nikos A. Salingaros. LITHUANIAN VERSION.

 

Design review: Arata Isozaki's Proposed Metal Frame, Piazza dei Castellani (Uffizi Galleries) in Florence, Italy.
Archinect (23 August 2008). Recensione del progetto: proposta di Arata Isozaki per un telaio metallico, Piazza dei Castellani (Gallerie degli Uffizi), Firenze. Italian version presented in a press conference with Vittorio Sgarbi to the Circolo dei Liberi -- Fondazione Magna Carta, Florence (PHOTO), Artonweb (20 September 2008). Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009.

 

No alle archistar, sono nichiliste (in Italian)
Il Sole 24 ORE (September 2008), page 17; also HERE, HERE, and HERE, and in PDF. Edited version of longer article, which appears in full on CESAR. To stop the invasion of historic city centers by ill-adapted contemporary architectural projects, we need a set of criteria that judges their non-adaptability and counters their misuse of the media. Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009.

 

Il grattacielo privo di copertura assicurativa (in Italian)
Fondazione CESAR (9 November 2008), reprinted by Fabio Rampelli and by Alessandro Serra. Complete version of an edited article that was published as "Abbasso lo skyline: Grattacieli sotto accusa", Il Tempo (9 November 2008), page 24 [PDF]. Chapter in No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2009. Shorter English version entitled The Uninsurable Skyscraper published in: Planetizen’s Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning, edited by Abhijeet Chavan, Christian Peralta & Christopher Steins (Island Press, Washington DC, 2007), pages 117-122.

 

Peer-to-peer Urbanism
Interview by Michel Bauwens, P2P Foundation Wiki (September 2008). Republished with added material in Greekarchitects (January 2009). Republished on World Architecture (March 2009). GREEK VERSION of Peer-to-peer Urbanism, Greekarchitects (January 2009). Republished by P2PFoundation (January 2009). ITALIAN VERSION is a chapter in the book No Alle Archistar: Il Manifesto Contro le Avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, 2009.


Controappello (with Paolo Masciocchi & Pietro Pagliardini)
Il Foglio (24 March 2009), page 4. Support for the new Italian Urban Plan against criticism by Gae Aulenti, Massimiliano Fuksas & Vittorio Gregotti (better version HERE). Reprinted along with related articles by Isabella Guarini, Camillo Langone, and Pietro Pagliardini in "Speciale Urbanistica 2009", Il Covile, Anno IX, No. 509 (18 April 2009).

 

Connecting the Fractal Coast
Plenary talk at the 7o Laboratorio Internazionale d'Architettura, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy, 22 September 2008. An analysis of the fractal geometrical qualities of coastal cities, and how enhancing them encourages urban life. The final section discusses the proposed bridge over the Messina straits. Italian version published in Il Covile.

 

La creazione dell’integrità sana il creatore, Il Covile, Anno IX, No. 507 (15 April 2009). A short essay introducing Christopher Alexander's idea that making a certain type of complex artefact induces a state of psychological and physiological nourishment in the maker. English version: Making wholeness heals the maker.

 

Urban Plazas Project, Querétaro, Mexico (in Spanish), Proposal to the Government of Mexico to build a series of New Urbanist Plazas (project in collaboration with Carlos Arvizu-García and Stefania Biondi). A set of rules generate successful urban plazas in almost any context. This methodology can be used in any place to create a new urban plaza that will have the best qualities of historic urban space, yet no two spaces will ever be the same. The model works computationally, not by copying a fixed prescription. ITALIAN VERSION is expanded with the collaboration of Pietro Pagliardini, entitled Geometria e vita dello spazio urbano, and is Chapter 15 of No alle archistar: il manifesto contro le avanguardie, Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Florence, 2009. English title: The geometry and life of urban space.

Ogni sana rivoluzione urbanistica dev'essere orizzontale (con Paolo Masciocchi e Pietro Pagliardini), pubblicato da Il Foglio il 30 aprile 2009. Ripubblicato in De Architectura, 5 maggio 2009. English title: Every healthy urban revolution needs to be horizontal. Opinion piece that sparked political discussion on the future directions of italian urbanism.

 

Intervista con Terzo Occhio, Terzo Occhio, "Archistar: tutti a casa!", No. 10, aprile/giugno 2009, pagine 58-59. Altri contributori: Franco La Cecla, Vittorio Gregotti, Massimiliano Fuksas, Mario Botta, Massimo Cacciari ed Emanuele Severino. An entire issue of Terzo Occhio was devoted to criticizing Starchitects, even though many of them were contributing.

 

Interview in Persian, Abadi -- Quarterly Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, Volume 19, No. 61/62, Winter & Spring 2009. Bilingual publication in english/persian.

 

Degrado: ripartire dalla piazza. Leonardo Servadio intervista Paolo Masciocchi, Avvenire, 23 luglio 2009. Interview about the Masciocchi-Masden-Pagliardini-Salingaros design team's aims, projects, and philosophy (in Italian). Highlights the Doha project. Politically important, since our team was included along with the most famous italian architect/urbanists. Another version HERE. Reprinted together with interviews of Mario Botta, Vittorio Gregotti, Franco Purini, Marco Romano, and others in "La Città ai Margini", Il Covile, No. 540, 4 September 2009.

 

Favelas e social housing: un codice generativo per l'edilizia sociale (con David Brain, Andrés Duany, Michael Mehaffy ed Ernesto Philibert-Petit), Bioarchitettura, No. 56, maggio 2009, pagine 52-59. Estratto in italiano del libro: Favelas and Social Housing: The Urbanism of Self-Organization.

 

Geospatial Analysis and Living Urban Geometry (co-authored with Pietro Pagliardini and Sergio Porta)
Chapter 17 of: Bin Jiang and Xiaobai Angela Yao, Editors, Geospatial Analysis and Modeling of Urban Structure and Dynamics, Springer, New York, 2010, pages 331-353. Extracts posted on the P2PFoundation Wiki, and also HERE. Extract entitled Starchitects against urban geometry published in World Architecture (March 2009). This extract translated into Italian published as Edilizia: piazza pulita delle archistar che hanno sinistrato le nostre città, Il Domenicale, Anno 8, Numero 13 (28 marzo 2009), pagina 3. We use GIS (Geographical Information Systems) technologies beyond their original representational domain, towards predictive and dynamic spatial models. This defines the new discipline of "urban seeding". We condemn the high rise tower block as an unsuitable typology, and propose to re-establish human-scale urban fabric that resembles the traditional living city.

 


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